Table 1 -- The Chemicals Tested in Thirteen Mainers

 

Chemical Group

Medium Tested Units of Measurement

 

Chemical Tested

 

Chemical Description

 

Phthalates

 

Tested in Urine

 

Results reported as nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml) or parts per billion (ppb)

MMP

Mono-methyl phthalate

A metabolite of DMP (dimethyl phthalate)

MEP

Mono-ethyl phthalate

A metabolite of DEP (diethyl phthalate)

MBP

Mono-butyl phthalate

A metabolite of DBP (dibutyl phthalate)

MBzP

Mono-benzyl phthalate

A metabolite of BzBP (benzylbutyl phthalate)

MEHP

Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate

 

All three are metabolites of DEHP, which is di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

MEOHP

Mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate

MEHHP

Mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate

PBDEs

Tested in blood

Results reported as picograms per gram (pg/g) on a lipid weight basis or parts per trillion (ppt)

 

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers

 

46 different PBDEs were measured of the 209 congeners that exist. See Table 2 for full list.

PBDE congeners are named from BDE-1 to BDE-209. They differ only by the location and number of the bromine atoms, which varies from 1 to 10. Congeners are chemical compounds that share the same basic structure.

 

PFCs

or perfluorinated chemicals

 

Tested in blood

 

Results reported as nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) or parts per billion

PFBA

Perfluorobutanoic acid

 

PFOA is the most prominent among this group of perfluorinated carboxylic acids. It has eight carbon atoms. The related compounds in this group range from having four to twelve carbon atoms. While PFOA is being phased out of some products, all of these compounds are possible breakdown products or manufacturing intermediates of other commercial PFCs.

PFPeA

Perfluoro-n-pentanoic acid

PFHxA

Perfluorohexanoic acid

PFHpA

Perfluoroheptanoic acid

PFOA

Perfluorooctanoic acid

PFNA

Perfluorononanoic acid

PFDA

Perfluorodecanoic acid

PFUnA

Perfluoroundecanoic acid

PFDoA

Perfluorododecanoic acid

PFBS

Perfluorobutanesulfonate

Among these perfluorinated sulfonates, PFOS was phased out of Scotchgard in 2000 and replaced with PFBS. PFHxS is still used.

PFHxS

Perfluorohexanesulfonate

PFOS

Perfluorooctanesulfonate

PFOSA

Perfluorooctanesulfonamide

A breakdown product of PFCs, which breaks down itself into PFOS

BPA

Tested in blood

Results in ng/mL or ppb

BPA

Bisphenol A

Monomer for polycarbonate plastic

BADGE-4OH

A metabolite of BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl ether) used in epoxy resins

Metals

 

Lead: tested in blood

Results in ug/dL

 

Methylmercury: tested in hair

Results in ng/g or ppb

 

Arsenic: tested in urine

Results in ug/L or ppb

Lead

A soft metal that readily escapes from products with skin contact, as a dust that can be ingested or inhaled, or dissolved in drinking water.

Methylmercury

A highly toxic form of mercury produced by bacteria in wetland environments from mercury pollution of the air and water, which builds up to high levels in fish and wildlife.

Arsenic (total, inorganic and As(III)

Total arsenic includes organic arsenic which is relatively low in toxicity as well as highly toxic inorganic arsenic. Arsenic(III) is the most toxic form of inorganic arsenic.


Table 2 -- Complete Results of Chemical Screening of Thirteen Mainers

 

Chemical Class

Chemical Tested

Regina Creeley

Dana Dow

Paulette Dingley

Amy Graham

Bettie Kettell

Russell Libby

Hannah Pingree

Lauralee Raymond

Vi Raymond

Elise Roux

Charlie Schmidt

Eric Stirling

Denyse Wilson

 

Phthalates

in URINE

 

In each box:

The 1st result is in ng/mL or ~ parts per billion (ppb);

 

The 2nd result is in ug/gCr-L (creatinine-corrected) or ~ ppb

MMP

< 3.32

< 3.42

< 1.73

< 1.16

12.1

46.5

5.17

7.18

2.99

7.29

13.1

8.9

26.6

23.1

21.6

14.2

19.6

22.7

15.8

8.19

< 6.28

< 5.87

5.56

6.78

< 26.3

< 17.2

MEP

 

10.3

10.6

81.5

54.7

45.9

177

26.7

37.1

24.4

59.5

29

19.6

172

150

105

69.1

121

140

395

205

20.7

19.3

38.1

46.5

73.9

48.3

MBP

26.2

27.0

32

21.5

22.6

86.9

15.7

21.8

28

68.3

38.7

26.1

75.7

65.8

107

70.4

66.2

76.5

97.4

50.5

48.5

45.3

35.4

43.2

141

92.2

MBzP

 

28.2

29.1

20.8

13.6

17.9

68.8

9.12

12.7

25.1

61.2

46.8

31.6

54

47

12.7

8.36

26.5

30.6

127

65.8

6.73

6.29

22.5

27.4

30.5

19.9

MEHP

 

10.2

10.5

2.42

1.62

8.18

31.5

5.23

7.26

13

31.7

24.7

16.7

45.3

39.4

23.3

15.3

57.9

66.9

7.89

4.09

4.52

4.22

2.82

3.44

10.8

7.06

MEOHP

 

15.4

15.9

6.15

4.13

8.05

31.0

7.47

10.4

30.9

75.4

27.6

18.6

106

92.2

52.1

34.3

114

132

29.1

15.1

8.56

8.00

8.81

10.7

22.6

14.8

MEHHP

 

41.3

42.6

12.5

8.39

29.5

113

23.9

33.2

66.4

162

59.5

40.2

197

171

95.8

63.0

280

324

54.5

28.2

43.6

40.7

20.6

25.1

49.6

32.4

Total Phthalates

133

137

156

105

144

555

93.3

130

191

465

239

162

677

588

418

275

685

793

727

377

136

127

134

163

342

223

Chemical Class

Chemical Tested

Regina Creeley

Dana Dow

Paulette Dingley

Amy Graham

Bettie Kettell

Russell Libby

Hannah Pingree

Lauralee Raymond

Vi Raymond

Elise Roux

Charlie Schmidt

Eric Stirling

Denyse Wilson

 

PFCs

 

in blood SERUM

 

results shown in ng/mL or ~ parts per billion (ppb)

PFBA

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

PFPeA

< 0.544

< 0.544

< 0.721

< 0.544

< 0.544

< 0.544

< 0.544

< 0.544

< 0.576

< 0.544

< 0.544

< 0.544

< 0.544

PFHxA

< 0.476

< 0.476

< 0.478

< 0.476

< 9.86

< 0.476

< 0.476

< 0.487

< 0.476

< 0.719

< 0.755

< 0.539

< 0.811

PFHpA

< 0.556

< 0.556

< 0.556

< 0.556

< 0.556

< 0.556

< 0.556

< 0.556

< 0.556

< 0.556

< 0.556

< 0.556

< 0.556

PFOA

1.52

18.4

3.05

1.05

4.55

4.43

5.03

3.7

7.69

3.55

4.41

5.61

1.23

PFNA

0.923

3.07

1.21

< 0.468

1.57

1.86

1.96

0.93

1.61

1.16

1.56

1.37

0.697

PFDA

< 0.504

1.21

< 0.504

< 0.504

0.615

0.551

0.683

< 0.504

1.23

0.628

< 0.504

0.826

< 0.504

PFUnA

< 0.512

1.39

< 0.512

< 0.512

< 0.512

< 0.512

1.19

0.595

0.744

0.69

0.633

0.932

< 0.512

PFDoA

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

< 0.576

PFBS

< 1.41

< 1.41

< 1.41

< 1.41

< 1.41

< 1.41

< 1.41

< 1.41

< 1.41

< 1.41

< 1.41

< 1.41

< 1.41

PFHxS

3.44

9.01

1.55

< 1.29

2.19

< 1.29

< 1.29

2.46

< 1.29

< 1.29

2.74

1.57

< 1.29

PFOS

13.7

38

14.4

6.11

21.4

15.4

14.2

13.4

10.9

14.9

25

14.1

6.69

PFOSA

< 0.48

< 0.48

< 0.48

< 0.48

< 0.48

< 0.48

< 0.48

< 0.48

< 0.48

< 0.48

< 0.48

< 0.48

< 0.48

Total PFCs

22.3

73.3

25.0

10.8

32.8

25.4

26.0

23.6

25.0

23.8

36.9

26.7

12.0

Chemical Class

Chemical Tested

Regina Creeley

Dana Dow

Paulette Dingley

Amy Graham

Bettie Kettell

Russell Libby

Hannah Pingree

Lauralee Raymond

Vi Raymond

Elise Roux

Charlie Schmidt

Eric Stirling

Denyse Wilson

BPA

 

in blood SERUM

BPA

< 0.752

< 0.52

3.75

< 0.52

< 0.52

< 0.52

< 1.64

< 0.571

4.49

6.64

< 3.24

< 0.52

< 0.52

BADGE-4OH

< 2.6

< 2.6

6.35

2.81

< 4.06

< 2.6

6.69

< 2.6

119

59.7

< 2.6

< 2.6

< 2.6

results shown in ng/mL or ~ parts per billion (ppb)

Chemical Class

Chemical Tested

Regina Creeley

Dana Dow

Paulette Dingley

Amy Graham

Bettie Kettell

Russell Libby

Hannah Pingree

Lauralee Raymond

Vi Raymond

Elise Roux

Charlie Schmidt

Eric Stirling

Denyse Wilson

 

 

PBDEs

 

in blood SERUM

 

results shown in pg/g on a lipid weight basis, which is approximately the same as parts per trillion (ppt)

BDE-7

< 27.4

< 22.1

< 27.2

< 43.6

< 25.7

< 25.7

< 24.6

< 31.3

< 23.4

< 34.1

< 27.7

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-8/11

< 27.4

< 22.1

< 27.2

< 43.6

< 25.7

< 25.7

< 24.6

< 31.3

< 23.4

< 34.1

< 27.7

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-10

< 27.4

< 22.1

< 27.2

< 43.6

< 25.7

< 25.7

< 24.6

< 31.3

< 23.4

< 34.1

< 27.7

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-12/13

< 27.4

< 22.1

< 27.2

< 43.6

< 25.7

< 25.7

< 24.6

< 31.3

< 23.4

< 34.1

< 27.7

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-15

439

86.7

* 141

80.2

200

506

603

225

119

86.1

144

60.6

480

BDE-17/25

154

72.1

36.7

58.1

506

212

58.7

217

69.4

138

202

84.4

* 58.2

BDE-28/33

900

599

350

518

2200

1850

554

1350

608

694

1340

483

801

BDE-30

< 27.4

< 22.1

< 27.2

< 52.1

< 25.7

< 25.7

< 24.6

< 31.3

< 23.4

< 34.1

< 27.7

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-32

< 27.4

< 22.1

< 27.2

< 43.6

< 25.7

< 25.7

< 24.6

< 31.3

< 23.4

< 34.1

< 27.7

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-35

* 102

* 101

* 67.1

46.3

* 69.4

* 101

* 119

* 47.9

* 100

* 41.4

< 27.7

* 68.5

* 66.1

BDE-37

< 27.4

< 22.1

< 27.2

< 43.6

< 25.7

37.1

* 55.3

< 31.3

< 23.4

< 34.1

< 27.7

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-47

8380

6490

2900

8390

33500

17200

5460

17500

7450

13000

18200

6550

6570

BDE-49

136

57.5

48

83.9

275

140

97.6

117

98.3

112

156

70.5

82.6

BDE-51

< 27.4

* 22.6

< 27.2

< 43.6

83.8

47.5

< 24.6

* 76.4

< 23.4

< 34.1

* 38

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-66

122

* 73.4

* 55.2

128

506

240

87.4

215

* 101

169

207

93.3

93.5

BDE-71

* 31.3

< 22.1

< 27.2

< 43.6

70.8

30.5

< 24.6

< 31.3

< 23.4

< 34.1

< 27.7

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-75

< 27.4

< 22.1

< 27.2

< 43.6

85.1

32.9

< 24.6

* 38.5

< 23.4

< 34.1

< 27.7

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-77

< 27.4

< 22.1

< 27.2

< 43.6

< 25.7

< 25.7

< 24.6

< 31.3

< 23.4

< 34.1

< 27.7

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-79

39

23.6

< 27.2

* 55.5

140

103

26.6

78.1

32.8

* 38.8

48

25.5

36.3

BDE-85

177

103

53.2

148

745

254

95.3

306

137

229

365

99.9

75.9

BDE-99

2210

1210

987

1870

9280

3290

1400

3170

1490

3310

3680

1440

1130

BDE-100

1550

1440

454

1260

6350

4780

866

7230

1650

2550

3380

1150

922

BDE-105

< 32

< 22.1

< 27.2

< 57.8

< 34.3

< 26

< 24.6

< 31.3

< 23.4

< 34.1

< 36

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-116

< 45.4

< 22.1

< 28

< 85.4

< 48.8

< 36.9

< 25.3

< 42.3

* 51.7

< 34.3

< 50.5

23.9

< 33

BDE-119/120

< 29

< 22.1

< 27.2

< 53.6

* 54.8

* 48

< 24.6

* 56.2

< 23.4

< 34.1

< 32.8

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-126

< 27.4

< 22.1

< 27.2

< 43.6

< 25.7

< 25.7

< 24.6

< 31.3

< 23.4

< 34.1

< 27.7

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-128

< 27.9

< 134

< 31.4

< 52.6

< 43.2

< 34.6

< 31.5

< 40.8

< 25.2

< 39.4

< 37.3

< 20.8

< 36.5

BDE-138/166

47.9

* 40.4

< 27.2

* 56.8

121

101

< 24.6

84.2

32.4

59

93.8

21.2

< 31.9

BDE-140

56.7

28

< 27.2

49.4

77.8

68.3

< 24.6

113

31.1

49.6

72.6

50.5

< 31.9

BDE-153

4840

3660

1390

4520

4060

5570

2780

15300

3030

2840

4300

9120

2150

BDE-154

200

145

96.8

225

746

505

131

396

166

280

375

150

119

BDE-155

* 45.9

* 31

< 27.2

* 70.5

* 78.6

* 59.5

* 38.4

* 57.8

* 34.6

* 57.6

* 62.3

* 42.2

* 37.3

BDE-181

< 28.2

< 26.8

< 27.2

< 43.6

< 25.7

< 25.7

< 24.6

< 31.3

< 23.4

< 34.1

< 27.7

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-183

297

352

* 147

623

531

445

159

417

210

271

1400

262

328

BDE-190

< 40.8

< 39.7

< 27.2

< 45.5

< 30

< 32.5

< 24.6

< 31.3

< 23.4

< 34.1

< 36.3

< 19.1

< 31.9

BDE-203

190

* 248

90.1

* 177

91.1

* 153

134

* 111

* 94.8

* 129

303

104

* 191

BDE-206

< 328

< 799

< 328

< 526

< 308

< 308

< 441

< 378

< 282

< 408

< 666

< 345

< 768

BDE-207

< 328

< 799

< 328

< 526

< 308

< 308

< 441

< 378

< 282

< 408

< 666

< 345

< 768

BDE-208

< 328

< 799

< 328

< 526

308

< 308

< 441

< 378

< 282

< 408

< 666

< 345

< 768

BDE-209

< 4920

<10700

< 4910

< 3940

< 4620

< 3080

< 8820

< 5660

< 4220

< 6120

< 9990

< 3450

< 11500

Total PBDEs

20,088

14,751

6,918

18,579

59,869

35,955

12,782

47,343

15,518

24,229

34,594

19,971

13,410

Chemical Class

Chemical Tested

Regina Creeley

Dana Dow

Paulette Dingley

Amy Graham

Bettie Kettell

Russell Libby

Hannah Pingree

Lauralee Raymond

Vi Raymond

Elise Roux

Charlie Schmidt

Eric Stirling

Denyse Wilson

Metals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pb in BLOOD in ug/dL

Lead

1.10

1.06

1.46

0.549

0.716

1.07

1.20

0.719

0.884

0.507

3.26

1.14

no data

MeHg in HAIR in ng/g or ppb

Methylmercury

* 156

497

396

437

333

* 215

1140

759

291

778

** 186

1180

257

As in URINE

1st # is in ug/L

2nd is ug/gCr-L (creatinine corrected) – both are ~ ppb

Arsenic

(Total)

843

869

98.1

65.8

3.51

13.5

11.2

15.5

21.2

51.7

16.1

10.9

30.7

26.7

59.6

39.2

11.1

12.8

8.18

4.24

40.2

37.6

58.6

71.5

56.7

37.1

Arsenic

(Inorganic)

0.238

0.245

0.496

0.333

0.162

0.623

0.575

0.799

0.173

0.422

1.11

0.75

1.13

0.98

1.07

0.70

0.753

0.871

0.48

0.25

0.508

0.476

0.299

0.365

1.16

0.76

Arsenic(III)

0.210

0.216

0.420

0.282

0.160

0.623

0.450

0.625

0.150

0.366

0.740

0.500

0.730

0.635

0.83

0.55

0.620

0.717

0.44

0.52

0.140

0.131

0.200

0.244

0.83

0.54

Chemical Class

Chemical Tested

Regina Creeley

Dana Dow

Paulette Dingley

Amy Graham

Bettie Kettell

Russell Libby

Hannah Pingree

Lauralee Raymond

Vi Raymond

Elise Roux

Charlie Schmidt

Eric Stirling

Denyse Wilson

Protein

in URINE

Creatinine

(mg/dL)

97

149

26

72

41

148

115

152

86.5

193

107

82

153

These normal protein levels are used to adjust the measured chemicals in urine to account for dilution due to varying amounts of fluid intake per person

 

NOTES:

Boldface type in a colored box indicates the chemical was detected

< the chemical was not found above the limit of detection indicated; the chemical might be present below this limit

 

* the chemical was detected but the quantification criteria were not met, therefore the result represents the estimated maximum possible concentration

 

** estimate

 

To calculate the sum total for Phthalates, PFCs and PBDEs, any value reported as non-detected (< #) was assigned a value of ½ the detection limit; For the same purpose, any PBDE value that was flagged (*) as not meeting quantification criteria was assigned a value of ½ the reported value.


Table 3 -- Summary of Results of Maine Body Burden Study

 

Results from 13 Maine Participants

Results from Other Studies

Phthalates

units = ug/gCr-L (creatinine corrected)

from federal CDC 3rd National Exposure Report [91]

n = 2,536 for MEP; n = 2,772 for all other phthalates[1]

 

Minimum

Maximum

Median – or 50th %tile

Median – or 50th %tile

75th %tile

90th %tile

95th %tile

MMP

< 1.16

46.5

8.19

1.33

2.62

5.00

7.97

MEP

10.6

205

54.7

147

388

975

1860

MBP

21.8

92.2

50.5

26.0

51.6

98.6

149

MBzP

6.29

68.8

29.1

13.5

26.6

55.1

90.4

MEHP

1.62

66.9

10.6

3.89

7.94

18.2

32.8

MEOHP

4.13

132

15.9

11.2

21.3

45.1

87.5

MEHHP

8.39

324

40.7

16.6

32.3

70.8

147

Sum TOTAL

105

793

223

219

530

1,268

2,375

PBDEs

units = pg/g on a lipid weight basis

from McDonald 2005 [92]

n = 62 women from CA & IN

n = 10

n = 11

 

Minimum

Maximum

Median – or 50th %tile

Median – or 50th % tile

95th %tile

Washington Median [93]

California Median [94]

BDE-15

60.6

603

144

 

 

275

-

BDE-17/25

36.7

506

84.4

 

 

61.7

-

BDE-28/33

350

2200

694

 

 

1128

-

BDE-35

< 27.7

119

* 68.5

 

 

< 5.64

-

BDE-37

< 19.1

* 55.3

< 27.7

 

 

10.0

-

BDE-47

2900

33500

8380

included below

incl. below

19950

14100

BDE-49

48

275

98.3

 

 

178

-

BDE-51

< 19.1

83.8

< 31.9

 

 

~ 12

-

BDE-66

* 55.2

506

122

 

 

170

-

BDE-71

< 19.1

70.8

< 31.3

 

 

< 17.4

-

BDE-75

< 19.1

85.1

< 27.7

 

 

25.0

-

BDE-79

< 27.2

140

* 38.8

 

 

* 61.1

-

BDE-85

53.2

745

148

 

 

346

-

BDE-99

987

9280

1870

included below

incl. below

4255

3100

BDE-100

454

7230

1550

included below

incl. below

3115

2100

BDE-116

< 22.1

* 51.7

< 36.9

 

 

< 22.4

-

BDE-119/120

< 19.1

* 56.2

< 31.9

 

 

22.8

-

BDE-138/166

21.2

121

47.9

 

 

73.8

-

BDE-140

< 24.6

77.8

49.6

 

 

~ 44

-

BDE-153

1390

15300

4060

included below

incl. below

2725

3400

BDE-154

96.8

746

200

included below

incl. below

368

280

BDE-155

< 27.2

* 78.6

* 45.9

 

 

43.4

-

BDE-183

* 147

1400

328

 

 

218

-

BDE-203

90.1

303

134

 

 

152

-

Sum TOTAL

6,918

59,869

19,971

40,700

305,000

47,500

22,980

PFCs

units = ng/mL in blood serum (wet weight)

n = 476 women & 442 men

n = 10

n = 12

 

Minimum

Maximum

Median

National Mean (estimated) [95]

Washington Median [96]

California Median [97]

PFOA

1.05

18.4

4.41

3.97 to 6.98

3.6

5.3

PFNA

< 0.468

3.07

1.56

0.51 to 1.10

-

1.67

PFDA

< 0.504

1.23

0.551

-

-

0.43

PFUnA

< 0.512

1.39

0.595

-

-

0.40

PFHxS

< 1.29

9.01

1.57

4.33

-

2.44

PFOS

6.11

38

14.2

23.4 to 40.2

21.3

25.6

Sum TOTAL

10.8

73.3

25.0

32.2 – 52.6

24.9

35.8

BPA

units = ng/mL in blood serum (wet weight)

n = 7 for BPA

n = 30 for BADGE

n = 11

n = 14 women

n = 11 men

 

Minimum

Maximum

Range Detected

Geometric Mean - EWG [98]

California Median [99]

Mean - Takeuchi and Tsutsumi [100]

BPA

< 0.52

6.64

3.75 – 6.64

1.08

0.46

0.64 to 1.49

BADGE-4OH

< 2.6

119

2.81 - 119

9.33

12.8

-

Metals

 

Lead

Minimum

Maximum

Median - 50%

Median – or 50th%tile

75th%tile

90th%tile

95th%tile

0.51

3.26

1.08

1.40

2.20

3.40

4.40

Units = micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood (ug/dL)

n = 8945; from federal CDC 3rd National Exposure Report [101]

 

Mercury

Methylmercury

 

Minimum

 

Maximum

 

Median - 50%

U.S. Women of Childbearing Age

U.S. Women of Childbearing Age

Mean

95th %tile

Median

90th %tile

Top row: n = 13 Mainers

156

257

1180

1140

396

759

 

360

 

2400

 

200

 

1400

Bottom row: n = 5 Maine women of childbearing age

Units = nanograms methylmercury per gram of hair (ng/g) or ppb

Smith (1997) cited in National Research Council [102]

n = 702 (CDC, 2001) [103]

Reference Dose, level above which fetal brain development is at risk = 1000 ppb methylmercury in hair

 

 

Arsenic

 

Minimum

 

Maximum

 

Median - 50%

Pellizari & Clayton (2006) [104]

 

Washington Median [105]

 

Median – 50%

Total As

3.51

843

30.7

10.23

11

 

Inorganic As

0.16

1.16

0.51

-

-

 

Arsenic(III)

0.14

0.83

0.44

-

-

 

Units = micrograms of arsenic per liter of urine (ug/L) or ppb

n = 102

n = 10

 

 

NOTES: Minimum and Maximum are the lowest and highest values reported among the 13 Maine participants. The median is the reported value that falls in the middle of the range of all reported values. The median is the same as the 50th percentile (50th %tile), which means that half or 50% of the reported values are less than this number and half are greater than it; The 75th percentile (75th %tile) is the number that is greater than three-quarters or 75% of all the reported values (and is less than one-quarter or 25% of all the reported values); The 90th percentile (90th %tile) is the number that’s greater than nine-tenths or 90% of all the reported values (and less than 10% of all reported values); The 95th percentile (95th %tile) is the number that is greater than 95% of all the reported values (and less than 5 % of all reported values); < means that the chemical was not found above the limit of detection indicated (but the chemical might be present below this level); * means that the chemical was detected but the quantification criteria were not met, therefore the result represents the estimated maximum possible concentration for that sample; n = the number of individuals sampled. For PFCs, the sum total is the median value of the minimum, maximum, and total among all Maine participants. For the comparative results, the sum total is the sum of the reported values. The values reported for the PFC national mean are the least squares means estimates of serum concentrations for non-Hispanic white females (lower value) and non-Hispanic white males (higher value) from pooled samples obtained through the 2001-2002 NHANES. The lead national mean is based on total results for the U.S. population aged one and older from 2001-2002 NHANES. See note 1, Table 16, p.38.